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The specific laws that might govern your amputation case depend on the type of lawsuit you file. Here is an overview of the laws surrounding the main categories of cases:
"the failure to do something which a reasonably careful person would do, or the doing of something which a reasonably careful person would not, under circumstances similar to those shown by the evidence." Illinois Pattern Jury Instructions Civil Second No. 10.01.
Illinois Pattern Jury Instructions Civil Second No. 21.02 provide the fundamental elements of a negligence action:
"First, that the defendant acted or failed to act in one of the ways claimed by the plaintiff as stated to you in these instructions and that in so acting, or failing to act, the defendant was negligent; Second, that [the plaintiff was injured] [and] [the plaintiff's property was damaged]; Third, that the negligence of the defendant was a proximate cause of [the injury to the plaintiff] [and] [the damage to the plaintiff's property]."
Put simply, the defendant must have breached a duty to the plaintiff and this breach mush have been the cause of injury and damages, namely an amputation. Thompson v. County of Cook, 154 Ill. 2d 374, 382 (Ill. 1993)
Hopefully, this gives you a better sense of the legal framework surrounding several of the most prevalent kinds of forms your amputation case might take.